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共享:win2003与FreeBSD6.0中文应用双系统共存安装全过程


2006-03-29 17:19:33 5,853 0 发表评论 字体: 作者:C.K.
标签: freebsd

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From:http://www.cublog.cn/u/12766/showart.php?id=68606

     我接触FreeBSD虽然不到一年,但这操作系统确实不错,也是我非常喜欢的。下面是我的安装笔记,里面很多东东都是网络上大虾的经验,如果你是一个初手可参考一下。

一、我的硬件
cpu   intel C42.0
主板   硕泰克845GL(集成AC97声卡,显卡,Rtl8139网卡)
内存   威刚256DDR400
硬盘   Mator40G
光驱   华硕52xcdrom

二、应用目的

(1)、已安装win2003,FreeBSD与win2003双系统共存,从windows引导进入FreeBSD系统。
(2)、一般的中文桌面应用,能上网聊天、播放多媒体文件,没有网络功能。
(3)、只安装mini(迷你)系系统,然后从网络安装软件包。
(4)、用分区工具分出一个准备装FreeBSD的主分区。

三、安装前的准备

(1)、由于找不到硬盘安装的方法,只好刻盘从光驱安装。
(2)、从disc1中提取boot/boot1文件到C盘根目录下,编辑boot.ini文件添加一项:
C:\boot1=”FreeBSD 6.0″,这样就会在win的引导界面看到FreeBSD 6.0的启动项。
四、安装系统
(1)、从光盘启动后回车进入sysinstall界面,用上、下、左、右键选择,回车确认。
(2)、选择standard开始进行标准安装。
(3)、分割硬盘:移动光棒选择您想安装 FreeBSD 的硬盘分区,按D删除原来的文件系统,按C创建FreeBSD文件系统,默认是165;由于从win引导,需激活win的C盘分区,移动光棒到win分区,按S激活;分割完毕,按W、Q重写分区表、推出。
(4)、安装多重引导,有三个选项:BootMgr,Standard,None。这里是用第三方的多重引导程序选None不安装FreeBSD的引导程序。
(5)、使用Disklabel 创建分区,一般创建四个分区(按顺序):/为根文件系统;swap为系统磁盘交换分区;/var目录会存放不同长度的文件、日志以及其它管理用途的文件;/usr为第三方软件安装地方,剩下的硬盘空间就全部给它。a、同样按C创建分区,如/:按C接下来将出现一个对话框,要求您输入新分区的大小(可直接输入数字+M)我输入120M,然后选择fs,在对话框里输入/(swap不必输入fs);后面的类推。。。如果你是初次安装,可直接按A选择自动分区。b、同样按W、Q完成分区。
(6)、选择安装软件包:如果你的硬盘较大,选ALL全部选择安装,这里我选mini。。最小化安装。
(7)、选择使用的安装介质,这里是cd/dvd。
(8)、确认安装。

五、安装后的配置

(一)、配置网卡

(1)、User Confirmation Requested
  Would you like to configure any Ethernet or SLIP/PPP network devices?
                            [ Yes ]   No
配置网卡,请选择 [ Yes ] 然后按 Enter。一般是默认的,也就是第一项。
(2)、User Confirmation Requested
      Do you want to try IPv6 configuration of the interface?
                             Yes   [ No ]
新的IP通信协议 IPv6 ,使用 RA 服务,不需要[No]
(3)、 User Confirmation Requested
       Do you want to try DHCP configuration of the interface?
                             Yes   [ No ]
动态主机配置协议,按[No]出现配置界面,用Tab键选择CANCEL

(二)、 配置网关

(1)、User Confirmation Requested
      Do you want this machine to function as a network gateway?
                             [ Yes ]    No
选择[No]

(三)、配置网络服务

(1)、 User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides?
                              Yes   [ No ]
(2)、 User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine?
                             Yes    [ No ]
(3)、User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server?
                             Yes    [ No ]
(4)、 User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client?
                             Yes   [ No ]
全部选择 [ No ]

(四)、安全配置

User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to select a default security profile for this host (select
No for “medium” security)?
                           [ Yes ]    No
选[Yes]

(五)、配置系统终端

User Confirmation Requested
      Would you like to customize your system console settings?
                             [ Yes ]  No
选[No]

(六)、配置时区

User Confirmation Requested
         Would you like to set this machine's time zone now?
                           [ Yes ]   No
  选择 [ Yes ] 并按下 Enter键以配置时区。
                      User Confirmation Requested
Is this machine's CMOS clock set to UTC? If it is set to local time
or you don't know, please choose NO here!
                             Yes   [ No ]
  选择[ No ] 然后按 Enter选择5 Asia -》China -》Beijing回车。

(七)、 Linux 兼容性

User Confirmation Requested
         Would you like to enable Linux binary compatibility?
                           [ Yes ]   No
这里推荐选[Yes]。

(八)、配置鼠标

User Confirmation Requested
        Does this system have a non-USB mouse attached to it?
                           [ Yes ]    No
选[Yes]-》Enable -》 测试鼠标功能,能移动就[Yes]-》Exit退出。

(九)、安装软件包

User Confirmation Requested
The FreeBSD package collection is a collection of hundreds of
ready-to-run applications, from text editors to games to WEB servers
and more. Would you like to browse the collection now?
                           [ Yes ]   No
选择 [ Yes ] 按Enter 将会显示软件包选择屏幕。
选择All 显示所有的软件包-》只选择cvsup两项 -》选Cancel。
安装完成之后,继续最后的配置。

(十)、最后配置

(1)、添加用户/组

User Confirmation Requested
Would you like to add any initial user accounts to the system? Adding
at least one account for yourself at this stage is suggested since
working as the “root” user is dangerous (it is easy to do things which
adversely affect the entire system).
                           [ Yes ]   No
  选择 [ Yes ] 然后键入Enter 继续添加用户。
选择用户user -》添加用户信息(使用 Tab 键来切换不同的项目)用户。
注意:Member groups项输入wheel(添加到 wheel 组)成了一个超级用户, 从而拥有 root权限。

(2)、设置 root 密码

Message
Now you must set the system manager's password.
This is the password you'll use to log in as “root”.
                        [ OK ]
              [ Press enter to continue ]
  键入 Enter 来设置 root 密码。
  密码必须正确地输入两次。 毋庸讳言, 您需要选择一个不容易忘记的口令。 请注意您输入的口令不会回显, 也不会显示星号。
Changing local password for root.
New password :
Retype new password :
  密码成功键入后,安装将继续。

(3)、退出安装

User Confirmation Requested
Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last
options?
                             Yes   [ No ]
  选择 [ No ] 然后键入 Enter 返回到主安装菜单。
选择 [X Exit Install] 然后键入 Enter。您可能需要确认是否真的退出安装:
                    User Confirmation Requested
Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot (be sure to
remove any floppies from the drives).
                           [ Yes ]   No
  选择 [ Yes ] 取出软盘。CDROM驱动器将被锁定, 直到机器重新启动。CDROM然后就可以从驱动器中取出来了。

六、安装应用程序

(一)、配置adsl拨号

(1)、编辑/etc/ppp/ppp.conf
Note:以冒号结尾的行从第一列(行首)开始,其他所有的行都需要缩进一个空格区间。

#ee /etc/ppp/ppp.conf
这是我的/etc/ppp/ppp.conf文件内容:
#################################################################
# PPP  Sample Configuration File
# Originally written by Toshiharu OHNO
# Simplified 5/14/1999 by wself@cdrom.com
#
# See /usr/share/examples/ppp/ for some examples
#
# $FreeBSD: src/etc/ppp/ppp.conf,v 1.10 2004/11/19 17:12:56 obrien Exp
#################################################################
default:(顶格)
set log Phase Chat LCP IPCP CCP tun command
ident user-ppp VERSION (built COMPILATIONDATE)
# Ensure that “device” references the correct serial port
# for your modem. (cuad0 = COM1, cuad1 = COM2)
#
set device PPPoE:rl0(我的Rtl8139网卡用rl0,相应修改你的网卡型号)
set speed sync
set mru 1492
set mtu 1492
set timeout 180                        # 3 minute idle timer (the def
set ctsrts off
enable dns                             # request DNS info (for resolv
deny lqr
add default HISADDR
adsl:(顶格)
#
# edit the next three lines and replace the items in caps with
# the values which have been assigned by your ISP.
#
set phone 电话号码
set authname adsl帐号
set authkey 密码
set dial
set login
set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 255.255.255.0 0.0.0.0
注:ppp.conf可以从/usr/share/examples/ppp.conf.sample生成

(2)、设置开机自动拨号

#ee /etc/rc.conf
添加以下内容:
ifconfig_rl0=”192.168.0.254/24″
defaultrouter=”192.168.0.254″
ppp_enable=”YES”
ppp_mode=”ddial”
ppp_profile=”adsl”
注:如果是电信用户,这样就可以连接网络了。
但我是海南网通的用户,还不能连接,于是我就添加一个路由文件/etc/resolv.conf,写入海南网通的DNS结果成功,究竟为啥我也搞不清。
#echo “namserver X.X.X.X” > /etc/resolv.conf

(二)、使用cvsup快速获取ports安装方法

(1)、用root用户把 /usr/share/examples/cvsup/ports-supfile?文件复制到新的位置,如/root目录下:
#cp /usr/share/examples/cvsup/ports-supfile /root/ports-supfile

(2) 、编辑ports-supfile?把*CHANGE_THIS.FreeBSD.org修改离你较近的cvsup,有如下选择:

cvsup  电信.上海市 cvsup2.cn.FreeBSD.org
cvsup  联通.浙江市 cvsup3.cn.FreeBSD.org
cvsup  电信.上海市 cvsup4.cn.FreeBSD.org
cvsup  网通.北京市 cvsup5.cn.FreeBSD.org
cvsup  教育网.北京市 cvsup6.cn.FreeBSD.org
#ee /root/ports-supfile
修改为:
cvsup5.cn.FreeBSD.org
可注释掉ports all和你不需要的选项,由于系统安装时没安装ports,所以没注释掉ports all。

(3)、更新ports

# cvsup -g -L 2 /root/ports-supfile

(三)安装中文应用桌面(X Windows)

(1)、安装xorg

由于xorg和KDE文件太大,一般的机子ports编译安装会需要大量的时间,所以用pkg_add安装
#pkg_add -r xorg

(2)、安装KDE

#pkg_add -r kde

(3)配置xorg

#Xorg -configure
然后编辑/root/xorg.conf.new
#ee /root/xorg.conf.new
部分内容:
EndSection
Section “InputDevice”
       Identifier  “Mouse0”
       Driver      “mouse”
       Option      “Protocol” “auto”
       Option      “Device” “/dev/sysmouse”
修改处:    
       Option      “Emulate3Buttons” “true”(配置三键鼠标)
       Option      “ZAxisMapping” “4 5”
EndSection
Section “Monitor”
       #DisplaySize      320   240     # mm
       Identifier   “Monitor0”
       VendorName   “PTW”
       ModelName    “309”
### Uncomment if you don't want to default to DDC:
修改处:
       HorizSync    30.0 – 70.0
       VertRefresh  50.0 – 150.0
       Option      “DPMS”
EndSection
Section “Screen”
       Identifier “Screen0”
       Device     “Card0”
       Monitor    “Monitor0”
 修改处:    
       DefaultDepth 24
       SubSection “Display”
               Viewport   0 0
               Depth     24
               Modes    “1024×768”
       EndSubSection
复制xorg.conf.new文件到/etc/X11重命名为xorg.conf
#cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf
到这步虽然可以启动X windows,但还没有安装字体,无法工作。

(4)、汉化KDE

a、安装i18n本地化,中文是kde-i18n-zh_CN。
#cd /usr/ports/chinese/kde3-i18n-zh_CN
#make install clean
汉化KOffice
#cd /usr/ports/chinese/koffice-i18n-zh_CN
#make install clean
b、安装字体工具ttmkfdir
#cd /usr/ports/X11-fonts/ttmkfdir
#make install clean
c、获取simsun字体,复制到/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType目录下
可从win下复制,win下是simsun.ttc文件
#mount_msdosfs -L zh_CN.GBK /dev/ad0s1 /mnt/winc
#mkdir -p /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType
#cp simsun.ttc /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType/simsun.ttf
注:挂载win分区大全
#mount_msdosfs -L zh_CN.GBK /dev/设备 /mnt/挂载点   (fat格式)
#mount_ntfs -C GBK /dev/设备 /mnt/挂载点            (ntfs格式)
#mount_cd9660 -C GBK /dev/设备 /cdrom
d、创建fonts.dir
#cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType
#ttmkfdir >fonts.dir
#cp fonts.dir fonts.fonts.scale
刷新字体:
#fc-cache -f -v
e、修改/etc/X11/xorg.conf
注释掉:
       #Load  “record”
       #Load  “freetype”
       #Load  “type1”
添加:
Section “Files”
       FontPath     “/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType/”
f、修改/usr/X11R6/etc/fonts/fonts.conf
# ee /usr/X11R6/etc/fonts/fonts.conf
在相应位置添加:

/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType


12


fales

(5)、启动kde配置

#echo “exec startkde” > ~/.xinitrc
注:由于本人不喜欢从kdm启动X windows,如果要从kdm或xdm进入,请编辑/etc/ttys
#ee /etc/ttys
修改:
tty8 “/usr/local/bin/xdm-nodaemon” xterm off secare

tty8 “/usr/local/bin/xdm-nodaemon” xterm on secare

tty8 “/usr/local/bin/kdm-nodaemon” xterm on secare
kdm 默认不让root登陆,要想root登陆,请修改:
AllowRootLogin=flase => ALLowRootLogin=true

(6)、设置中文

a、在kde控制中心的“区域与辅助功能”(Regional&Accessiblity)的国家/地区语言(Contry/Re。。&lang。。)里面设国家为“china”和语言为“简体中文”(Simplifiled Chinese)
b、在外观与主题的字体里设置字体为simsun 12,并去掉“使用字体平滑”

(四)、安装中文输入法

(1)、终端下的输入法CCE

#cd /usr/ports/chinese/cce
#make install clean

(2)、fcitx输入法

a、安装

#cd /usr/ports/chinese/fcitx
#make install clean
b、修改~/.profile文件添加:
LANG=zh_CN.eucCN
LC_ALL=zh_CN.eucCN
export LANG LC_ALL
c、设置变量
CSH:
setenv LANG   zh_CN.eucCN
setenv LC_ALL zh_CN.eucCN
SH/BASH:
LANG=zh_CN.eucCN
LC_ALL=zh_CN.eucCN
d、修改~/.cshrc添加:    
setenv LANG   zh_CN.eucCN
setenv LC_ALL zh_CN.eucCN
setenv XMODIFIERS @im=fcitx
SH/BASH:  修改~/.shrc?或~/.bash添加:    
LANG=zh_CN.eucCN
LC_ALL=zh_CN.eucCN
export XMODIFIERS='@im=fcitx'
e、修改~/.xinitrc?在开头(即exec startkde前面)添加:
exec fcitx&
f、进入X windows输入命令
#qtconfig
然后选择 -> Interface -> XIM Input Style -> 选中 -> Over the sport(上面的复选框也选上) -> file -> save
注:显示fcitx字体信息:
#cd /usr/ports/chinese/fcitx
#cat pkg-message

(五)、安装bt下载工具

#cd /usr/ports/net/py-bittorrent

#make install clean

(六)、安装网络聊天工具gaim-openq

#cd /usr/ports/net-im/gaim-openq
#make install clean
安装kde下的qq聊天软件EVA(推荐)
#cd /usr/ports/net-im/eva
#make extract
#make install clean

(七)、多媒体工具

a、MP3播放器Xmms
#cd /usr/ports/multimedia/xmms
#make install clean
#cd /usr/ports/multimedia/xmms-skins
#make install clean
汉化Xmms字体设置
选择项 -> 首选项 -> 字体 -> 选上“使用字体集和使用X字体”两项 -> 置换字体设置为:
-sony-*-*-*-*-*-16-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-0,-*-*-*-*-*-*-16-*-*-*-*-*-gbk-1
b、rm与rmvb等格式播放器kaffeine
#cd /usr/ports/multimedia/kaffeine
#make install clean
#cd /usr/ports/multimedia/win32-codecs
#make install clean
让Noatun播放rmvb
#cd /usr/ports/multimedia/xine_artsplugin
#make install clean

(八)、安装flash插件

#cd /usr/ports/www/linuxpluginwrapper
#make install clean
打开konqueror -> 设置 -> 插件 -> 新建 – /usr/local/lib/pluginwrapper

七、重新编译内核

(1)、安装源码:

a、最简单的方法是:把安装盘disc1放进cdrom,通过以 root 身份运行 sysinstall  选择 Configure, 然后 Distributions, 然后 src, sys,选择ALL。
b、通过命令行来安装:
# mount /cdrom
# mkdir -p /usr/src/sys
# ln -s /usr/src/sys /sys
# cat /cdrom/src/ssys.[a-d]* | tar -xzvf –

(2)、编译内核:

# mv /boot/kernel /boot/kernel.bak
#cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
#mkdir /root/kernels
#cp GENERIC /root/kernels/CZLKERNEL
#ln -s /root/kernels/CZLKERNEL
#ee CZLKERNEL
我的内核内容如下:
machine         i386
#cpu            I486_CPU
#cpu            I586_CPU
cpu             I686_CPU
ident           CZLKERNEL
# To statically compile in device wiring instead of /boot/device.hints
#hints          “GENERIC.hints”         # Default places to look for d
#makeoptions    DEBUG=-g                # Build kernel with gdb(1) deb
options         SCHED_ULE               # ULE scheduler
#options        SCHED_4BSD              # 4BSD scheduler
options         PREEMPTION              # Enable kernel thread preempt
options         INET                    # InterNETworking
#options        INET6                   # IPv6 communications protocol
options         FFS                     # Berkeley Fast Filesystem
options         SOFTUPDATES             # Enable FFS soft updates supp
options         UFS_ACL                 # Support for access control l
options         UFS_DIRHASH             # Improve performance on big d
options         MD_ROOT                 # MD is a potential root devic
options         NFSCLIENT               # Network Filesystem Client
options         NFSSERVER               # Network Filesystem Server
options         NFS_ROOT                # NFS usable as /, requires NF
options         MSDOSFS                 # MSDOS Filesystem
options         CD9660                  # ISO 9660 Filesystem
options         PROCFS                  # Process filesystem (requires PSEUDOFS)
options         PSEUDOFS                # Pseudo-filesystem framework
options         GEOM_GPT                # GUID Partition Tables.
options         COMPAT_43               # Compatible with BSD 4.3 [KEEP THIS!]
options         COMPAT_FREEBSD4         # Compatible with FreeBSD4
options         COMPAT_FREEBSD5         # Compatible with FreeBSD5
#options        SCSI_DELAY=5000         # Delay (in ms) before probing SCSI
#options        KTRACE                  # ktrace(1) support
options         SYSVSHM                 # SYSV-style shared memory
options         SYSVMSG                 # SYSV-style message queues
options         SYSVSEM                 # SYSV-style semaphores
options         _KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B real-time extensions
options         KBD_INSTALL_CDEV        # install a CDEV entry in /dev
#options        AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT    # Print register bitfields in debug
                                       # output.  Adds ~128k to driver.
#options        AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT    # Print register bitfields in debug
                                       # output.  Adds ~215k to driver.
options         ADAPTIVE_GIANT          # Giant mutex is adaptive.
device          apic                    # I/O APIC
# Bus support.
#device         eisa
device          pci
# Floppy drives
#device         fdc
# ATA and ATAPI devices
device          ata
device          atadisk         # ATA disk drives
#device         ataraid         # ATA RAID drives
device          atapicd         # ATAPI CDROM drives
#device         atapifd         # ATAPI floppy drives
#device         atapist         # ATAPI tape drives
options         ATA_STATIC_ID   # Static device numbering
# SCSI Controllers
#device         ahb             # EISA AHA1742 family
#device         ahc             # AHA2940 and onboard AIC7xxx devices
#device         ahd             # AHA39320/29320 and onboard AIC79xx devices
#device         amd             # AMD 53C974 (Tekram DC-390(T))
#device         isp             # Qlogic family
#device         ispfw           # Firmware for QLogic HBAs- normally a module
#device         mpt             # LSI-Logic MPT-Fusion
#device         ncr             # NCR/Symbios Logic
#device         sym             # NCR/Symbios Logic (newer chipsets + those of `ncr')
#device         trm             # Tekram DC395U/UW/F DC315U adapters
#device         adv             # Advansys SCSI adapters
#device         adw             # Advansys wide SCSI adapters
#device         aha             # Adaptec 154x SCSI adapters
#device         aic             # Adaptec 15[012]x SCSI adapters, AIC-6[23]60.
#device         bt              # Buslogic/Mylex MultiMaster SCSI adapters
#device         ncv             # NCR 53C500
#device         nsp             # Workbit Ninja SCSI-3
#device         stg             # TMC 18C30/18C50
# SCSI peripherals
device          scbus           # SCSI bus (required for SCSI)
device          ch              # SCSI media changers
device          da              # Direct Access (disks)
#device         sa              # Sequential Access (tape etc)
device          cd              # CD
#device         pass            # Passthrough device (direct SCSI access)
#device         ses             # SCSI Environmental Services (and SAF-TE)
# RAID controllers interfaced to the SCSI subsystem
#device         amr             # AMI MegaRAID
#device         arcmsr          # Areca SATA II RAID
#device         asr             # DPT SmartRAID V, VI and Adaptec SCSI RAID
#device         ciss            # Compaq Smart RAID 5*
#device         dpt             # DPT Smartcache III, IV – See NOTES for options
#device         hptmv           # Highpoint RocketRAID 182x
#device         iir             # Intel Integrated RAID
#device         ips             # IBM (Adaptec) ServeRAID
#device         mly             # Mylex AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID
#device         twa             # 3ware 9000 series PATA/SATA RAID
# RAID controllers
#device         aac             # Adaptec FSA RAID
#device         aacp            # SCSI passthrough for aac (requires CAM)
#device         ida             # Compaq Smart RAID
#device         mlx             # Mylex DAC960 family
#device         pst             # Promise Supertrak SX6000
#device         twe             # 3ware ATA RAID
# atkbdc0 controls both the keyboard and the PS/2 mouse
device          atkbdc          # AT keyboard controller
device          atkbd           # AT keyboard
device          psm             # PS/2 mouse
device          vga             # VGA video card driver
device          splash          # Splash screen and screen saver support
# syscons is the default console driver, resembling an SCO console
device          sc
# Enable this for the pcvt (VT220 compatible) console driver
#device         vt
#options        XSERVER         # support for X server on a vt console
#options        FAT_CURSOR      # start with block cursor
device          agp             # support several AGP chipsets
# Power management support (see NOTES for more options)
#device         apm
# Add suspend/resume support for the i8254.
device          pmtimer
# PCCARD (PCMCIA) support
# PCMCIA and cardbus bridge support
#device         cbb             # cardbus (yenta) bridge
#device         pccard          # PC Card (16-bit) bus
#device         cardbus         # CardBus (32-bit) bus
# Serial (COM) ports
device          sio             # 8250, 16[45]50 based serial ports
# Parallel port
device          ppc
device          ppbus           # Parallel port bus (required)
#device         lpt             # Printer
device          plip            # TCP/IP over parallel
device          ppi             # Parallel port interface device
#device         vpo  
#  网络卡设定
device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (“Tulip'')
device em # Intel PRO/1000 adapter Gigabit
device ixgb # Intel PRO/10GbE Ethernet Card
#device txp # 3Com 3cR990 (“Typhoon'')
#device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (“Vortex'')
# PCI Ethernet NICs that use the common MII bus controller code.
# NOTE: Be sure to keep the 'device miibus' line in order to use these NICs!
device miibus # MII bus support
#device bfe # Broadcom BCM440x 10/100 ethernet
#device bge # Broadcom BCM570xx Gigabit Ethernet
#device dc # DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
#device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
#device lge # Level 1 LXT1001 gigabit ethernet
#device nge # NatSemi DP83820 gigabit ethernet
#device pcn # AMD Am79C97x PCI 10/100 (precedence over 'lnc')
device re # RealTek 8139C+/8169/8169S/8110S
device rl # RealTek 8129/8139
#device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 (“Starfire'')
#device sis # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
#device sk # SysKonnect SK-984x and SK-982x gigabit ethernet
#device ste # Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
#device ti # Alteon Networks Tigon I/II gigabit ethernet
#device tl # Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
#device tx # SMC EtherPower II (83c170 “EPIC'')
#device vge # VIA VT612x gigabit ethernet
#device vr # VIA Rhine, Rhine II
#device wb # Winbond W89C840F
#device xl # 3Com 3c90x (“Boomerang'', “Cyclone'')

# ISA Ethernet NICs.  pccard nics included.
#device  cs    # Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0 NIC
# 'device ed' requires 'device miibus'
#device  ed    # NE[12]000, SMC Ultra, 3c503, DS8390 cards
#device  ex    # Intel EtherExpress Pro/10 and Pro/10+
#device  ep    # Etherlink III based cards
#device  fe    # Fujitsu MB8696x based cards
#device  ie    # EtherExpress 8/16, 3C507, StarLAN 10 etc.
#device  lnc    # NE2100, NE32-VL Lance Ethernet cards
#device  sn    # SMC's 9000 series of ethernet chips
#device  xe    # Xircom pccard ethernet
# ISA devices that use the old ISA shims
#device  le

# Wireless NIC cards
device  wlan    # 802.11 support
device  an    # Aironet 4500/4800 802.11 wireless NICs.
device  awi    # BayStack 660 and others
device  ral    # Ralink Technology RT2500 wireless NICs.
device  wi    # WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
#device  wl    # Older non 802.11 Wavelan wireless NIC.

#虚拟装置

device random # Entropy device
device  loop    # Network loopback

device  mem    # Memory and kernel memory devices

device  io    # I/O device

device  ether    # Ethernet support

#device  sl    # Kernel SLIP

device  ppp    # Kernel PPP

device  tun    # Packet tunnel.

device  pty    # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)

device  md    # Memory “disks”

#device  gif    # IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling

#device  faith    # IPv6-to-IPv4 relaying (translation)

device  bpf    # Berkeley packet filter

#USB 装置

device  uhci    # UHCI PCI->USB interface
device  ohci    # OHCI PCI->USB interface
device  ehci    # EHCI PCI->USB interface (USB 2.0)
device  usb    # USB Bus (required)
#device  udbp    # USB Double Bulk Pipe devices
device  ugen    # Generic
device  uhid    # “Human Interface Devices”
device  ukbd    # Keyboard
device  ulpt    # Printer
device  umass    # Disks/Mass storage – Requires scbus and da
device  ums    # Mouse
device  ural    # Ralink Technology RT2500USB wireless NICs
device  urio    # Diamond Rio 500 MP3 player
device  uscanner  # Scanners
# USB Ethernet, requires mii
#device  aue    # ADMtek USB ethernet
#device  axe    # ASIX Electronics USB ethernet
#device  cdce    # Generic USB over Ethernet
#device  cue    # CATC USB Ethernet
#device  kue    # Kawasaki LSI USB Ethernet
#device  rue    # RealTek RTL8150 USB Ethernett

# FireWire support
device          firewire      # FireWire bus code
device          sbp           # SCSI over FireWire (Requires scbus and da)
device          fwe           # Ethernet over FireWire (non-standard!)

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